I'm going to try to answer your questions. I'm not a lawyer, but I've spend a good deal of time reading up in this space. My answers probably aren't exactly right, but they are probably fairly close.
] This is a question that I've been following closely,
] especially as regards the war on terrorism. If an ISP or
] other online service provider were to discover that one of the
] names on the "FBI's Most Wanted Terrorists" list showed up in
] their user list, what are they legally allowed to do?
You are always allowed to call the cops. If you see something that you think is suspicious you are allowed to inform the police about it. Sometimes, particularily with respect to intellectual property, you are legally compelled to remove offending content, etc if you happen upon it...
] How much information can the ISP legally volunteer to law
] enforcement (name/address/credit card/surfing habits/etc), and
] at what point should the line be drawn about requiring
] oversight of which information is released?
For the most part, the rules have more to do with what you are compelled to provide rather then what you are required to keep secret. It is assumed that the market will sort out the rest, as customers tend to prefer that their privacy be protected, and choose companies that agree to do so.
] Also, which law enforcement agencies should be entitled to
] which? If an ISP volunteers the full set of info to the FBI,
] can or should they also volunteer that information to their
] local police?
You can call any police agency that you want, and offer what you want to them (notwithstanding the above issue). Whether they actually act on it is a matter of jurisdiction, and severity.
] Or what if a police department from another
] state contacts the ISP and asks for the info? Or a lawyer
] from another state?
] How much burden should the ISP assume in
] order to confi... [ Read More (0.3k in body) ]